07.03.2019: Science Notebook Ch. 12

Today’s soundtrack is Still Remains: The Serpent, one of the tamest, safest attempts at metalcore that I’ve ever heard.

It’s utterly uninspiring pop-metal; if Demon Hunter had a little brother who decided to make an album with a Fisher Price keyboard, it would sound like “The Serpent.” The lyrics are pretty bad, too. Every time that I come around to “Dancing With the Enemy” and they croon, “Voices talking; he said, she said / I don’t care about that / This sensitive silence / between you and I / I’ll be the one to break it,” I cringe harder than an eighth-grader who just had his mom dab on him in front of his friends. Like, come on. If the lyrics are going to be emo garbage, is it too much to ask that they at least be grammatically correct garbage?

Everything You Need to Ace Science in One Big Fat Notebook
Chapter 12: Work and Machines

Your job might involve work, but not all jobs do. In a scientific sense, work is when a force is applied to an object and the object moves in the same direction as the force. We can calculate the amount of work being done in joules by multiplying newtons of force by distance in meters.

We can use machines to make work easier or more effective. There are two kinds of machines: simple and compound. The former “does work with a single motion” (p. 122); the latter is a combination of simple machines that all work together.

Examples of compound machines include pedal and chain of a bicycle, or a wheel with bearings. Examples of simple machines include a ramp or a lever. There are three classifications of levers:

1. First class
1. The load is on one side, the fulcrum is in the middle, and the effort is applied to the other side
2. Example: teeter-totter
2. Second class
1. The effort is applied to one side, the load is in the middle, and the fulcrum is at the other side
2. Example: Hand-cart
3. Third class
1. The fulcrum is on one side, the effort is in the middle, and the load is on the other side
2. Example: Side lateral dumbbell lift

Summary:

1. A person is doing work when they exert force on an object in a certain direction and the object moves in the same direction that the force is exerted. Examples of work that I do on a daily basis include picking up my coffee cup repeatedly, or applying force to my steering wheel to turn it.
2. A simple machine does work with one motion; a compound machine combines two or more simple machines to do work with more than one motion.
3. An activity that uses a lever is going up and down on the see-saw
4. A pivot point on a lever is called a fulcrum
5. An inclined plane makes work easier by allowing us to move objects up and down by sliding or rolling them instead of lifting or lowering them. We are exerting less force when we use an inclined plane, but the object is traveling a further distance; thus, we are still doing the same amount of work.
6. Two ways that a wheel and axle can make work easier are 1) We can use the wheel to make it easier to turn something (example: using a socket wrench instead of a screwdriver); 2) We can use rolling friction to help us move objects more easily we can apply small movements to the axle to make the wheel output faster or more.
7. A pulley is a wheel with a rope wrapped around it.